Catalogue of type specimens of vascular plants deposited in the Herbarium of the University of Granada (Spain)Acronym: Fanerogamia-GDA
This dataset contains the specimen records from the catalogue of the nomenclature types of vascular plants in the Herbarium of the University of Granada, Spain. These herbarium specimens are included in the GDA and GDAC collections, acronyms registered in the Index Herbariorum (Thiers 2014). A catalogue of vascular plants types from the Herbarium of the University of Granada has not previously been compiled. As a result of developing a doctoral thesis on the nomenclatural types included in their collections, and a project to get digital images to preserve and publish them, a large number of previously unrecognized types were identified. At this time, the type collection of vascular plants at the Herbarium of the University of Granada contains 547 type material of 438 nominal taxa. Most of the types provide from Morocco and Spain (eastern Andalusia). Almost half of them come from the following exsiccatae: Iter Maroccanum (1927-1930) of Font Quer, Plantes D’Espagne of Sennen, Flora Iberica Selecta, Flora Selecta Canariensis of Sventenius, and Pteridophyta Iberica. The rest of this catalogue has been generated through researches conducted by Botany Department of the University of Granada, mostly from eastern Andalusia.
For each specimen, the locality indication, species name, observation date, collector, type status, related information, associated sequences, and other catalogue numbers related to each type are recorded. The dataset is associated with an image collection available at the Herbarium of University of Granada institutional web site http://herbarium.ugr.es/pages/imagenes/tipos-nomenclaturales/tvascular) or by request images to the data provider while loading the image collection on the server is completed.
In general, the distribution of the taxa of this catalogue is the western Mediterranean region, mostly from Spain and Morocco. Considering the seven types of orchids donated by Dr. Pérez-Vera this area is extended to Ivory Coast. 50% of the catalogued types are from Morocco, most come from the exsiccata Iter Maroccanum of Font Quer and Plantes d'Espagne of Sennen. Although 48% are from Spanish origin, they only correspond to 159 taxa that constitute 36.6% of the taxa in the catalogue. Most of the catalogued holotypes and isotypes are contained in this group. The provinces of eastern Andalusia, Granada, Almeria, Jaen, and Malaga, are represented by a greater number of taxa (from 50 taxa in Granada to nine in Malaga). Tenerife is also well represented by the types of the exsiccata Flora Selecta Canariensis of E.R. Sventenius, and also Barcelona by the types of the exsiccata of Plantes d'Espagne of Sennen.
The Herbarium of the University of Granada combines two general collections: GDA and GDAC (Thiers 2014). Both sections have different origin, dates, taxonomic groups and curatorial treatment. Since 2000, both herbaria were moved to the same place, forming the current Herbarium of the University of Granada. A complete review of all materials, recovery and incorporation of unregistered materials, updating curatorial methods and, even more important, the computerization of the entire collection were the main tasks accomplished since then.
Late years, the Herbarium of the University of Granada has developed a project to digitalize images of high-priority specimens in order to preserve them and make them available on Internet. As a result of the reviewing process, several types that had not previously been compiled were detected. In order to reveal the existence of nomenclatural types whose deposit in the herbarium was unknown and to catalogue, analyze and validate the types of the different taxonomic groups and its historical collections, a doctoral thesis was conceived and the associated research conducted. This lead to an in-depth analysis of both sections and their historical collections. As a result, the catalogues of type specimens of different taxonomic groups of the Herbarium of the University of Granada have been compiled, published, and made accessible on Internet at the Herbarium of the University of Granada institutional web.
During the verification process of this information, errors in the database have been revealed, and corrected, thereby contributing to the databases cleaning and their validation. In this validation process, types corresponding to a bryophytes taxon and eight to a vascular plants whose names had not been published in an effective and valid way (according to Art. 29-30 and 32 of the ICN) have been removed from the catalogue. Other four types have been validated by publishing a valid typification of their names. The disappearance of 10 types corresponding to six taxa of vascular plants has also been detected.
In total, 533 nomenclatural types of vascular plants, four of macroscopic algae, 142 of fungi and four of lichens have been catalogued. From these, 293 types of vascular plants and 42 of fungi have been detected after the study of the historical collections included in the GDA Herbarium and the exhaustive review of the Fungi collection. In addition, 32 new types have been incorporated into the vascular collection and 54 types of fungi in GDA-Fungi corresponding to the publication of new taxa.
The catalogue of type specimens of fungi and lichens was the first published on the GBIF.ES Integrated Publishing Toolkit (IPT) http://ipt.gbif.es/resource?r=gda-fungi-tipos), updated in 2018, indexed on the GBIF.ORG Data Portal https://www.gbif.org/dataset/7ac0504d-0230-4029-afbe-04657ae47c48) and published as data paper (Vizoso & Quesada, 2015). In order to complete the main goals of this work we intend to publish the catalogue of type specimens of vascular plants in the same way. However, so far, aside form the fungi and lichen specimen catalogues, only the catalogue of types of macroscopic algae has been published, but at the Herbarium of the University of Granada institutional web.
The consistency of data on type-specimen records was verified through comparisons with the information in original publications of the new species. The data reference to the original identification for each nomenclatural type of the taxon name were consigned. When the nomenclatural type was not included as such in the herbarium but was found after searching and reviewing the relevant literature, a revision label was added to the sample. Type status, name, site where it was validly published, and the author who documented it, were the fields detailed in this label. These data have also been computerized. When some information items such as geographical coordinates, altitude, identifiers of genetic sequence and others catalogue numbers belonging of the rest typical series had not been included in the herbarium database, and these data were available in the protologue, they were included in this dataset. Taxonomic status of the taxa names have been revised by comparison with Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, African Plant DataBase, The Plant List, Flora iberica (Castroviejo, 1986-2012), Flora Vascular de Andalucía oriental (Blanca et al., 2009), and Catálogo de las plantas vasculares del norte de Marruecos (Valdés et al., 2002).
DARWIN TEST (Ortega-Maqueda & Pando 2008) is the software application used to validate and check records from tables in a DARWINCORE format before exporting the database to a Darwin Core Archive file. DARWIN TEST has been used to check scientific names against the Scientific_Names table from Species 2000, to convert coordinates from UTM to decimal degrees which are used in the Darwincore format and to detect anomalous ASCII characters. Once checked and corrected, these records were exported as a Darwin Core Archive file that was uploaded to the IPT (Integrated Publishing Toolkit) hosted by GBIF.ES http://www.gbif.es/). The metadata from the dataset have been completed directly in the IPT.
First of all, a query was made to each of the two herbarium databases on nomenclatural types of the vascular plants collections (Phanerogamy and Pteridophyta database collections). Both were managed with the SICIMA software application (Fajardo & Pérez, 2002) and later with HERBAR (Pando et al. 1994-2010). Thus the results of the queries were compared with the label information for the type specimens in the Herbarium collection. Three kinds of errors were detected and corrected: first, typographical errors; second, records that were described as types samples but were not really types; and third, omissions in the database, i.e. types that should have been recorded as such. Publications on the description of new species made by Amo y Mora (1855, 1861), Font Quer (1928-1935), Pau (1928-1931), Maire (1929-1933), Sennen (1930, 1936), Sventenius (1948, 1953) and González Bueno et al. (1988), main collectors and researchers of the historical exsiccatae, were reviewed. After this review, 308 types that were not recorded as types were detected. In addition to these, others 29 which were computerized as types had not the appropriate physical curation treatment. Over all them, the appropriate curation was applied. A total of 31 errors in the database were corrected, 12 types were excluded from the catalogue, and 32 types corresponding to 12 new taxa described during the development of this project were included. In addition, nine types of the last three new taxa published in 2018 were also incorporated in this dataset.
After updating the database with the digitalization of new types obtained from reviewed publications and data cleaning, the dataset corresponding to the type collection was obtained by consulting the database again. The resulting dataset was manually migrated to DarwinCore format and completed by adding the associatedMedia, TypeStatus, othersCatalogueNumbers, and associatedSequences fields. Then, the migrate file was validated with the Darwin Test tool (Ortega-Maqueda and Pando 2008). Finally the Darwin Core Archive was generated to incorporate the metadata to this file and published on the GBIF.es Integrated Publishing Toolkit (IPT).
After obtaining the catalogue of types, all specimens were checked for appropriate physical curation treatment. Then, an i2S CopiBook RGB scanner (resolution of 300 dpi and TIFF format) was used to obtain digital images of the nomenclatural types. After the metadata for each image was included, the corresponding tiled/pyramid TIFF was generated and uploaded at the GBIF.ES “Biodiversity Image Portal of Spanish collections” Hosting and Publishing Service. Unfortunately, this GBIF.ES service stopped working two years ago. While the image server is being restored, images are available by request to researchers through the Herbarium GDA provider. The type collection is also available at the Herbarium of University of Granada institutional web site http://herbarium.ugr.es/pages/imagenes/tipos-nomenclaturales/tplant).
Type of content
Includes: point occurrence data.
Vizoso Paz M T (2018): Catalogue of type specimens of vascular plants deposited in the Herbarium of the University of Granada (Spain). v1.0. Herbario de la Universidad de Granada. Dataset/Occurrence. https://ipt.gbif.es/resource?r=gda-vascular-tipos&v=1.0
To the extent possible under law, the publisher has waived all rights to these data and has dedicated them to the Public Domain (CC0 1.0). Users may copy, modify, distribute and use the work, including for commercial purposes, without restriction.
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Metadata last updated on 2020-06-01 13:36:22.0