Dataset of Passerine bird communities in a mediterranean high mountain (Sierra Nevada, Spain)
Observatorio de seguimiento de los efectos del cambio global de Sierra Nevada. Centro Andaluz de Medio Ambiente, Universidad de Granada, Junta de Andalucía.
We describe a dataset of Passerine bird communities in Sierra Nevada, a Mediterranean high-mountain located in southern Spain. The dataset includes occurrences data from bird surveys carried out in four representative ecosystem types of Sierra Nevada from 2008 to 2015. For each contact both birds number and distance to transect line were recorded. A total of 27847 occurrences records were collected and 55694 measurements recorded. All records belong to Passeriformes order. 16 families and 44 genera were collected. Most of the taxa of the dataset are included in the European Red List. This dataset belongs to the Sierra Nevada Global-Change Observatory (OBSNEV), a long-term research project designed to compile socio-ecological information on the major ecosystem types in order to identify the impacts of global change in this area.
Sierra Nevada (Andalusia, SE Spain), is a mountainous region with an altitudinal range between 860 m and 3482 m a.s.l. covering more than 2000 km2 (Figure 1). The climate is Mediterranean, characterized by cold winters and hot summers, with pronounced summer drought (July-August). The annual average temperature decreases in altitude from 12–16°C below 1500 m to 0°C above 3000 m a.s.l., and the annual average precipitation is about 600 mm. Additionally, the complex orography of the mountains causes strong climatic contrasts between the sunny, dry south-facing slopes and the shaded, wetter north-facing slopes. Annual precipitation ranges from less than 250 mm in the lowest parts of the mountain range to more than 700 mm in the summit areas. Winter precipitation is mainly in the form of snow above 2000 m of altitude.
This mountain area comprises 27 habitat types from the Habitat Directive. Sierra Nevada protected area contains 72 animal species (44 breeding birds, 17 mammals, 5 invertebrates, 2 amphibians and 4 reptiles) and 20 plant species listed in the Annex II and/or in the Annex IV of Habitat or Bird directives. It is thus considered one of the most important biodiversity hotspots in the Mediterranean region (Blanca 1996, Blanca et al. 1998, Cañadas et al. 2014).
Sierra Nevada has several legal protections: Biosphere Reserve MAB Committee UNESCO; Special Area of conservation (Natura 2000 network); Natural Park and National Park. The area includes 61 municipalities with more than 90, 000 inhabitants. The main economic activities are agriculture, tourism, cattle raising, beekeeping, mining, and skiing (Bonet el al. 2010).
The sampling transects were georeferenced using a Garmin eTrex Legend GPS (WGS 84 Datum) with an accuracy of ±5 m. We also used colour digital orthophotographs provided by the Andalusian Cartography Institute and GIS (ArcGIS 9.2; ESRI, Redlands, California, USA) to verify that the geographical coordinates of the transect were correct (Chapman and Wieczorek 2006).
For the identification of the specimes several fields guides were used (De Juana and Varela 2000, Jonsson 2001). The scientific names were checked with database of the IOC World Bird List (v 5.52) (Gill and Donkster 2015). We also used the R package taxize (Chamberlain and Szocs 2013, Chamberlain et al. 2014) to verify the taxonomical classification.
We also performed validation procedures (Chapman 2005a, 2005b) (geopraphic coordinate format, coordinates within country/provincial boundaries, absence of ASCII anomalous characters in the dataset) with DARWIN_TEST (v3.2) software (Ortega-Maqueda and Pando 2008).
All data were stored in a normalized database (PostgreSQL) and incorporated into the Information System of Sierra Nevada Global-Change Observatory. Taxonomic and spatial validations were made on this database (see Quality-control description). A custom-made SQL view of the database was performed to gather occurrence data and other variables associated with occurrence data, specifically:
• Birds Count: Number of individual recorded by the observer within transect (see Sampling description)
• Distance: Distance of the contact (bird) to transect line. The distance is estimated by eye.
The occurrence and measurement data were accommodated to fulfill the Darwin Core Standard (Wieczorek et al. 2009, 2012). We used Darwin Core Archive Validator tool http://tools.gbif.org/dwca-validator/) to check whether the dataset meets Darwin Core specifications. The Integrated Publishing Toolkit (IPT v2.0.5) (Robertson et al. 2014) of the Spanish node of the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) http://www.gbif.es/ipt) was used both to upload the Darwin Core Archive and to fill out the metadata.
The Darwin Core elements for the occurrence data included in the dataset are: occurrenceId, modified, language, basisOfRecord, institutionCode, collectionCode, catalogNumber, scientificName, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, specificEpithet, scientificNameAuthorship, continent, country, countryCode, stateProvince, county, locality, minimumElevationInMeters, maximumElevationInMeters, decimalLongitude, decimalLatitude, coordinateUncertaintyinMeters, geodeticDatum, recordedBy, day, month, year, EventDate.
For the measurement data, the Darwin Core elements included were: occurrenceId, measurementID, measurementType, measurementValue, measurementAccuracy, measurementUnit, measurementDeterminedDate, measurementDeterminedBy, measurementMethod.
Type of content
Includes: point occurrence data.
iEcolab, University of Granada-Andalusian Environmental Center (Andalusian Institute for Earth System Research) (2015) Passerine bird communities in a high mountain (Sierra Nevada, Spain). 27847 data records. Contributed by University of Granada, OBSNEV, Agencia de Medio Ambiente y Agua de Andalucía, Archila Gallegos F, Arias Navarro A, Barea-Azcón JM, Bueno de la Rosa V; Cobos L; Contreras Parody F, Debén Duarte C, Foronda J, Galdo Fuentes P, Hernández Soto I, Lopera E, López Martínez A, López-Sanjuán R, Lozano Rubio AJ; Marín Escribano JM; Martín Jaramillo J; Martos García C, Morillas Fernández D, Pulido Poyal C, Rodríguez G. Online at http://www.gbif. es/ipt/resource.do?r=passerine
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC-BY-NC) 4.0 License.
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Metadata last updated on 2018-11-30 12:33:03.0