Dataset of Phenology of flora of mediterranean high-mountains meadows (Sierra Nevada)
Observatorio de seguimiento de los efectos del cambio global de Sierra Nevada. Centro Andaluz de Medio Ambiente, Universidad de Granada, Junta de Andalucía.
Sierra Nevada mountain range (southern Spain) hosts a high number of endemic plant species, being one of the most important biodiversity hotspots in the Mediterranean basin. The high-mountain meadow ecosystems (borreguiles) harbour a large number of endemic and threatened plant species. In this data paper, we describe a dataset of the flora inhabiting this threatened ecosystem in this Mediterranean mountain. The dataset includes occurrence data for flora collected in those ecosystems in two periods: 1988-1990 and 2009-2013. A total of 11002 records of occurrences belonging to 19 orders, 28 families 52 genera were collected. 73 taxa were recorded with 29 threatened taxa. We also included data of cover-abundance and phenology attributes for the records. The dataset is included in the Sierra Nevada Global-Change Observatory (OBSNEV), a long-term research project designed to compile socio-ecological information on the major ecosystem types in order to identify the impacts of global change in this area.
Sierra Nevada (Andalusia, SE Spain), is a mountainous region with an altitudinal range between 860 m and 3482 m a.s.l. which covers more than 2000 km2. The climate is Mediterranean, characterized by cold winters and hot summers, with pronounced summer drought (July-August). The annual average temperature decreases in altitude from 12-16ºC below 1500 m to 0ºC above 3000 m a.s.l., and the annual average precipitation is about 600 mm. Additionally, the complex orography of the mountains causes strong climatic contrasts between the sunny, dry south-facing slopes and the shaded, wetter north-facing slopes. Annual precipitation ranges from less than 250 mm in the lowest parts of the mountain range to more than 700 mm in the summit areas. Winter precipitation is mainly in the form of snow above 2000 m of altitude. The Sierra Nevada mountain range hosts a high number of endemic plant species (c. 80; Lorite et al. 2007) for a total of 2,100 species of vascular plants (25% and 20% of Spanish and European flora, respectively), being considered one of the most important biodiversity hotspots in the Mediterranean region (Blanca et al. 1998; Cañadas et al. 2014).
Sierra Nevada is an isolated high mountain range (reaching 3.482 m.a.s.l.) located in Southern Spain (37ºN, 3ºW) covering 2.100 km2. It hosts a high number of vegetal endemic species (c. 80) (Lorite et al. 2007) in a total of 2.100 species of vascular plants (25 % and 20 % of Spain and Europe flora respectively), being considered one of the most important biodiversity hotspot in the Mediterranean region (Blanca et al. 1998). It has several legal protections: Biosphere Reserve MAB Committee UNESCO; Special Protection Area and Site of Community Importance (Natura 2000 network); and National Park. This mountain area comprises 27 habitats types from the habitat directive. It contains 31 fauna species (20 birds, 5 mammals, 4 invertebrates, 2 amphibians and reptiles) and 20 plants species listed in the Annex I and II of habitats and birds directives. There are 61 municipalities with more than 90.000 inhabitants. The main economic activities are agriculture, tourism, beekeeping, mining and skiing (Bonet et al. 2010).
The sampling plots were georeferenced using a Garmin eTrex Legend GPS (ED1950 Datum) with an accuracy of ±5 m. We also used colour digital ortophotographs provided by the Andalusian Cartography Institute and GIS (ArcGIS 9.2; ESRI, Redlands, California, USA) to verify that the geographical coordinates of each sampling plots were correct (Chapman and Wieczorek 2006).
The specimens were taxonomically identified using Flora Iberica (Castroviejo et al. 1986-2005) and others reference floras: Flora de Andalucía Oriental (Blanca et al. 2011), Flora Vascular de Andalucía Oriental (Valdés et al. 1987) and Flora Europaea (Tutin et al. 1964–1980). The scientific names were checked with databases of International Plant Names Index (IPNI 2013) and Catalogue of Life/Species 2000 (Roskov et al. 2013). We also used the R packages taxize (Chamberlian and Szocs 2013; Chamberlain et al. 2014) and Taxostand (Cayuela and Oksanen 2014) to verify the taxonomical classification.
We also performed validation procedures (geopraphic coordinate format, coordinates within country/provincial boundaries, absence of ASCII anomalous characters in the dataset) with DARWIN_TEST (v3.2) software (Ortega-Maqueda and Pando, 2008).
All data were stored in a normalized database and incorporated into the Information System of Sierra Nevada Global Change Observatory. Taxonomic and spatial validations were made on this database (see Quality control description). A custom-made SQL view of the database was performed to gather occurrence data and others variables associated to some occurence data, specifically:
• Flowering abundance: number of flowering individuals by square meter
• Fruit abundance: number of individuals in fruiting period by square meter
• Cover: the percentage of cover by taxon. The value represents a transformation of Braun-Blanquet cover-abundance scale (van der Maarel 1979, 2007)
The occurrence and measurement data were accommodated to fulfill the Darwin Core Standard (Wieczorek et al. 2009; 2012). We used Darwin Core Archive Validator tool http://tools.gbif.org/dwca-validator/) to check whether the dataset meets Darwin Core specifications. The Integrated Publishing Toolkit (IPT v2.0.5) (Robertson et al. 2014) of the Spanish node of the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) http://www.gbif.es:8080/ipt) was used both to upload the Darwin Core Archive and to fill out the metadata.
The Darwin Core elements for the occurrence data included in the dataset are: occurrenceId, modified, language, basisOfRecord, institutionCode, collectionCode, datasetName, catalogNumber, scientificName, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, specificEpithet, infraspecificEpithet, scientificNameAuthorship, continent, country, countryCode, stateProvince, county, locality, minimumElevationInMeters, maximumElevationInMeters, decimalLongitude, decimalLatitude, coordinateUncertaintyinMeters, geodeticDatum, recordedBy, DayCollected, MonthCollected, YearCollected, EventDate.
For the measurement data, the Darwin Core elements included are: id, measurementID, measurementType, measurementValue, measurementAccuracy, measurementUnit, measurementDeterminedDate, measurementDeterminedBy, measurementMethod, measurementRemarks.
Type of content
Includes: point occurrence data.
iEcolab, University of Granada-Andalusian Environmental Center (Andalusian Institute for Earth System Research) (2014) Phenology of flora of mediterranean high-mountains meadows (Sierra Nevada). 11005 data records. Contributed by University of Granada, OBSNEV, Agencia de Medio Ambiente y Agua de Andalucía, Sánchez-Rojas CP, Zamora R, Veredas A, Fuentes J, Bautista J, Onieva MR, Robles F, Arrufat M, Martínez M and the rangers of Sierra Nevada National-Natural Park B. Villagomez and D. Morillas. Online at http://www.gbif.es:8080/ipt/resource.do?r=borreguiles and http://obsnev.es/noticia.html?id=7839, version 1.0 (last updated on 2014-10-10). Resource ID: GBIF Key:
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC-BY-NC) 4.0 License.
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