Catalogue of type specimens of fungi and lichens deposited in the Herbarium of the University of Granada (Spain)
This dataset contains the specimen records from the catalogue of the nomenclature types of fungi and lichens in the Herbarium of the University of Granada, Spain. These herbarium specimens are included in the GDA and GDAC collections, acronyms from Index Herbariorum (Thiers 2014). A catalogue of types from the Herbarium of the University of Granada has not previously been compiled. As a result, a search of these collections to get digital images to preserve and publish them yielded a large number of previously unrecognized types. At this time, the type collection of fungi and lichens at the Herbarium of the University of Granada contains 146 type material of 72 nominal taxa, most from Agaricales and the genus Cortinarius, described from the western Mediterranean, mainly Spain, by the following authors: V.Antonin, J.Ballará, A.Bidaud, G.F.Bills, M.Bon, C.Cano, M.Casares, G.Chevassut, M.Contu, F.Esteve.Raventós, R.Galán, L.Guzmán-Dávalos, R.Henry, E.Horak, R.Mahiques, G.Malençon, P.Moënne-Loccoz, G.Moreno, A.Ortega, F.Palazón, V.N.Suárez.-Santiago, A.Vêzda, J.Vila, and M.Villareal.
For each specimen, the locality indication, species name, observation date, collector, type status, related information, associated sequences, other catalogue numbers related to each type, and image URL are recorded. The dataset is associated with an image collection named “Colección de imágenes de los tipos nomenclaturales de hongos, líquenes, musgos y algas incluidos en el Herbario de la Universidad de Granada (GDA y GDAC)” (Vizoso and Quesada 2013) which is hosted and accessible at the GBIF.ES Hosting and Publishing Service “Biodiversity Image Portal of Spanish collections” and is also available at the Herbarium of University of Granada institutional web (Vizoso 2014a) http://herbarium.ugr.es/pages/imagenes/tipos-nomenclaturales/tipos_hongos). That image collection contains 117 images of which 59 correspond to the nomenclature types of 52 taxa (50 fungi, 2 lichens), the rest of the images in this collection correspond to documents and specimens or microscopy photographs which are included in the herbarium specimens of fungi. These complement and document the process of the typification.
In general, the distribution of the taxa of this catalogue is the western Mediterranean region. Most of the taxa are from the Iberian Peninsula (121 types records from 53 taxa) as shown in Figure 3, smaller numbers from France (13 types from 12 taxa) and Italy (9 records from 4 taxa) and a single taxon from Morocco, and another one from Mexico. Outside this general geographic distribution, there is a single taxon from Czechoslovakia with 2 records. All these type specimens from outside of Spain were gifts or exchanges from the private herbaria of Dr Ortegas French and Italian colleagues (G.Chevassut, M.Bon, P.Möenne-Loccoz, and M.Contu). Additionally, type specimens from northern and eastern Spain come from collaboration between Dr Ortega and some researchers such as J. Vila and R. Mahiques from the Societat Catalana de Micologia and Societat Micologica Valenciana, respectively. Most of the records from Spain are from Andalusia (types of 31 taxa from 50 in Spain) and within this region the greatest portion corresponds to the provinces of Granada (19 taxa), Malaga (3), Seville (3), Cádiz (2), Cordoba (1), and Almeria (2), as shown in the Figure 3.
The Herbarium of the University of Granada combines two general collections: GDA and GDAC (Thiers 2014). The GDA used to be the herbarium of the Pharmacy Faculty, which was created in 1852. In 1970, GDAC was created in the Science Faculty. In 2000, both herbaria were moved to the same place, forming the current Herbarium of the University of Granada. The GDAC collection was closed in 2000 with a total of 45,000 records. New materials are continuously added to the collection and registered with the GDA acronym. Currently, the GDA Herbarium has become an essential reference for studies of the flora of southeastern Spain. Both collections, the GDA and GDAC, include specimens of vascular plants and cryptogams. Vascular plants amount to 87% of the whole collection (including a 3% of pteridophytes) and cryptogams 13% (9% in the GDAC and 4% in the GDA). Over 50% of all vascular-plant specimens are in the GDA collection, which continues to grow, and the rest belongs to the GDAC. Conversely, over 69% of all cryptogams come from the GDAC. Within this group, the fungus (51%), lichen (25%, completely within the GDA) and moss (18%) collections have special significance. The remaining specimens correspond to algae and liverworts. Geographically, the country with the most specimens is Spain (94%), followed by Morocco (3.5%) and Portugal (1.5%). Within Spain, the largest portion is from Andalusia (82%) which in turn includes samples from Granada (68%), Almería (11%), Jaén (7%), Málaga (6%), and other Andalusian provinces, confirming the value of our Herbarium as a reference for studying the flora from eastern Andalusia.
Since the unification of the GDA and GDAC collections, many tasks have been accomplished. These include a complete review of all materials, recovery and incorporation of unregistered materials, updating curatorial methods and, even more important, the computerization of the entire collection. More recently, the Herbarium of the University of Granada has developed several projects to digitalize images of high-priority specimens in order to preserve them and make them available on Internet. As a result of the reviewing process, many types that had not previously been compiled were detected. In addition, the catalogues of type specimens of different groups of the Herbarium of the University of Granada have been compiled, published, and made accessible on Internet through the “Biodiversity Image Portal of Spanish collections” at the GBIF.ES Hosting and Publishing Service and at the Herbarium of the University of Granada institutional web. The catalogue of type specimens of fungi and lichens has been one of the first published on the GBIF.es Integrated Publishing Toolkit (IPT). This dataset is the most important part of the image collection “Colección de imágenes de los tipos nomenclaturales de hongos, líquenes, musgos y algas incluidos en el Herbario de la Universidad de Granada (GDA y GDAC)” (Vizoso and Quesada 2013) published in GBIF.ES and “Tipos nomenclaturales de hongos” (Vizoso 2014a) and “Tipos nomenclaturales de líquenes” (Vizoso 2014b) available on the Herbarium of University of Granada institutional web site.
The consistency of data on type-specimen records was verified by comparisons with the information in original publications of the corresponding new species. When some information items such as geographical coordinates, altitude, and identifiers of genetic sequence associated data had not been included in the herbarium database and these data were available in the protologue, they were included in this dataset. The consigned data refer to the original identification for which the nomenclatural type from the taxon name was given. When the nomenclatural type was not recorded as such in the herbarium but was found after searching and reviewing the relevant literature, a revision tag was included in the specimen record. This tag specifies the type status, name, and site where it was validly published and the author who documented it. These data have also been computerized.
DARWIN TEST (Ortega-Maqueda and Pando 2008) is the software application used to validate and check records from tables in a DARWINCORE format before exporting database to a Darwin Core Archive file. DARWIN TEST has been used to check scientific names against the Scientific_Names table from Species 2000, to convert coordinates from UTM to decimal degrees which are used in the Darwincore format and to detect anomalous ASCII characters. Once checked and corrected, these records were exported as a Darwin Core Archive file which was uploaded to the IPT (Integrated Publishing Toolkit) hosted by GBIF.ES http://www.gbif.es/). The metadata from the dataset have been completed directly in the IPT.
First of all, a query was made to each of the two herbarium databases on nomenclatural types of the fungus and lichen collections. The first database (fungi) is managed with the BIOMEN software application (Delgado et al. 2005), and the second with HERBAR (Pando et al. 1994-2010). Thus the results of the queries were compared with the label information for the type specimens in the Herbarium collection. Three kinds of errors were detected and corrected: first, typographical errors; second, records that described as types samples that were not really types; and third, omissions in the database, i.e. types that should have been recorded as such. Publications on the description of new species made by Dr Ortega and Dr Casares, the main collectors and researchers of these collections, were reviewed. After this review, 5 holotypes, 6 isotypes, 1 neotype, 1 epitype, 9 clastotype, and 35 paratypes that were not recorded as types nor had the appropriate physical curation treatment were detected. After the database update with the inclusion of new types obtained from reviewed publications and data cleaning, the collection corresponding to this dataset was obtained by consulting the database again. Data resulting from this query were manually migrated to DarwinCore format. Then, the resulting DarwinCore records were completed by adding the ImageURL and TypeStatus fields, after which it was validated with the DarwinTest tool (Ortega-Maqueda and Pando 2008). Finally the DarwinCore Archive was generated to incorporate the metadata in this file and published it on the GBIF.es Integrated Publishing Toolkit (IPT).
In an effort to fill out the ImageURL field in the step described above, the following steps were taken: after obtaining the catalogue of types of fungi and lichens, all specimens were checked for appropriate physical curation treatment (placed in a type cover, by convention red, to indicate the presence of type specimens and to ensure better protection). Then, digital images of the nomenclatural type and documents included with each specimen were prepared. A Hewlett Packard Scan Jet 5300C model with a resolution of 600 dpi for specimens and 150 dpi for documents was used. After the metadata for each image was included, the corresponding tiled/pyramid TIFF was generated and uploaded at the GBIF.ES “Biodiversity Image Portal of Spanish collections” Hosting and Publishing Service. This collection is available both at “Colección de imágenes de los tipos nomenclaturales de hongos, líquenes, musgos y algas incluidos en el Herbario de la Universidad de Granada (GDA y GDAC)” http://www.gbif.es/Imagenes.php#GDA-TIPOS-CRIPTO) and also at the Herbarium of University of Granada institutional web http://herbarium.ugr.es/pages/imagenes/tipos-nomenclaturales/tipos_hongos).
Type of content
Includes: point occurrence data.
Vizoso M T (2014): Catalogue of type specimens of fungi and lichens deposited in the Herbarium of the University of Granada (Spain). v2.8. Herbario de la Universidad de Granada. Dataset/Occurrence. doi:10.15468/2a7kqy
To the extent possible under law, the publisher has waived all rights to these data and has dedicated them to the Public Domain (CC0 1.0). Users may copy, modify, distribute and use the work, including for commercial purposes, without restriction.
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Metadata last updated on 2018-11-30 12:33:02.0